History & Archeology

The Archaeological section is one of the important section among the four major sections of the Directorate of Research Dy. Director of Research (Archaeology) is the over all in-charge of the Archaeological Section and Assistant Director is the immediate subordinate of the Dy. Director (Archaeology) is directly related with the Technical Assistants (Archaeology) and Assistant Curator (Archaeology). The Technical Assistants (Archaeology) and Assistant Curator (Archaeology) are looking after the archaeological field activities and museum activities under the overall guidance, supervision and direction of the Director and Deputy Director (Archaeology) of the Department. In the Archaeological Section technical subordinate of the Technical Assistant and Assistant Curator is Draughtsman. The section endeavors to protect / preserve and promote the historical and archaeological heritage of the state.

ACTIVITIES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SECTION

  • Exploration
  • Excavation
  • Conservation/Renovation
  • Maintainance & Development of
    (i) ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS & SITES
    (ii)ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUMS
  • Documentations
  • Organising & Participating in Seminars/Workshop etc.
  • Publication of books, articles on Archaeological matters
  • Till now, 11nos. of books have been published in Archaeology & History of Arunachal Pradesh

Maintenance of Archaeological Sites: –

A considerable number of monuments and archaeological sites have been discovered and unearthed by the Directorate of Research at various places of the State in different period. Later on necessary efforts have been made for development of archaeological sites viz. Naksaparbat, Itafort, Malinithan, etc. to draw the attention of the tourists. Many important archaeological sites are being maintained by the Archaeology Section which is mentioned below: –

LIST  OF  ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND MONUMENTS  IN ARUNACHAL PRADESH.

Central Protected Monuments (ASI) :-

Sl.No.Name of sitesDistrictRemarks
1BhalukpongWest Kameng Ruins of Fort, 9th to 12th Century A.D.
2BhishmaknagarLower Dibang Valley Ruins of Fort and habitational settlement, 13th to 14th Century A.D.
3Tamresvari TempleLohit Remain of temple, 10th-11th Century A.D.

 

 

State Protection Monument :-

Sl.No.Name of sitesDistrictRemarks
1.  Dirang DzongWest KamengRemains of Fort, 17 th Century A.D.
2.  Taklung DzongWest KamengRemains of Fort, 17 th century A.D.
3.  NaksaparbatEast KamengRemains of old settlement, 14 th to 16 th Century A.D.
4.  ItafortPapum PareRemains of Fort, 13 th to 14 th Century A.D.
5.  MalinithanWest SiangRemain of Temple, 10 th to 14 th century A.D.
6.  VijyanagarChanglangRemains of Stupa, 18 th century A.D.
7.  ManabhumLohitRemains of mud fort, 14 th -15 th Century A.D.
8.  Thembang DzongWest KamengAncient Fortified village (Living Village), 17 th -18 th Century A.D

 

Unprotected Monument :-

Sl.No.Name of sitesDistrictRemarks
1.  Tawang GompaTawangMonastery, 17 th Century A.D.
2.  Lhagyala GompaWest KamengRemains of Monastery, 17 th century A.D.
3.  Dirkhi DzongWest KamengRemains of Fort, 14 th to 15 th century A.D.
4.  TapasoEast KamengRemains of old settlement, 14 th to 15 th century A.D.
5.  Gomsi (Rani)East SiangRemains of old settlement,13 th to 14 th century A.D.
6.  HatidubaLohitRemains of Fort and settlement 14 th to 15 th century A.D.
7.  HajuLohitRemains of old settlement 13 th to 14 th century A.D.
8.  Chidu-ChimriLower Dibang ValleyRemains of old settlement 13 th to 14 th century A.D.
9.  War Rampart ( Bon-gal Yapgo)Lower Dibang ValleyRemains of Barricade,19 th century A.D.
10.  World War-II CementryChanglangRemains of World War – II.
11.  Ugylling GompaTawangRuins of old Ugylling Gompa,14th Century A.D.
12.  Tsogyenling GompaTawangRuin of old Gompa 15 th Century A.D.
13.  Chagsam Iron Chain linking bridgeTawangHistoric Iron chain bridge ( linking Mukto & Tawang) 16 th CentureA.D.
14.  Queen Place of ZemithangTawangPalace of queen’s of Zemithang, 17th Century A.D.
15.  Rock cut chairTawangHistoric Rock cut chair of Zemithang queen 17 th Century A.D.
16.  Bass relief of Lord BuddhaTawangGyent bass relic of Lord Buddha on stone Zemithang .
17.  Duma chalang of KalaktangWest KamengRemains of old settlement, Kalaktang.
18.  Sen DzongWest KamengRemains of old settlement Shergaon, 16 th Century A.D.
19.  Mud GompaWest KamengRemains of old mud Gompa, Shergaon, 16 th Century A.D.
20.  Megalith of ShergaonWest KamengMegalithic site ( Menhirs )of Shergaon, Prehistoric period.
21.  Dimachang BetaliWest KamengRemains of old settlement 16 th Century A.D.
22.  Siva LingaLower SubansiriIndia’s biggest natural Siva Linga at Ziro.
23.  Apatani Worship stoneLower SubansiriHistoric worship stone of Apatani folk at Ziro.
24.  Tai LampiiLower SubansiriHistoric cave at Ziro.
25PassangKurung KumeyPre-historic site.
26Samthen YangchaWest SiangOld Monastery at Mechuka Valley.
27Rock Art ( Painting )West SiangRock Art (Painting) of Mechuka Historic Period.
28Pelden Thuwang MonasteryWest SiangOld Gompa at Darjeeling village, Mechuka.
29KalayinjongUpper SiangOld monastic ruin of Tuting 16 th Century A.D.
30Kekar MonyingUpper SiangHistoric Remains of Anglo-Adi War, 19 th Century A.D.
31Nyukong GompaUpper SiangOld Monastery of Nyukong Singa circle, 19 th century A.D.
32Siva Linga TempleLohitRuins of old Temple at Paya, Tezu, 14 th century A.D.
33Ruins of Mud fort, TezuLohitRemains of old Mudfort Tezu, 14th century A.D.
34PreetnagarChanglangRemains of old settlement 17 th Century A.D.
35Temple ruin of BorduriaTirapRuins of old Temple at Borduria, 14 th Century AD.
36Napa WangcheTirapGraveyard of Wangcha queen Nape Wangche 17 th Century A.D.
37Megalith of BorduriaTirapMegalithic site of Borduria village, 19 th Century A.D.

All the archaeological sites are of medieval period ranging from 9th -12th century A.D. to 15th -17th century A.D. These sites are regularly maintained by the Archaeology Section of the Directorate of Research. To look after the archaeological sites, the Technical Assistants are posted at different places. Naksaparbat is controlled directly from the Headquarter and Gomsi (Rani) is being maintained by the Technical Assistants, Malinithan. Periodical chemical treatment of the antiquities of museums and monumental structure has been continued around the year. On the other hand the cleaning of vegetation growth on the monuments and keeping a constant vigil of the site is being carried out.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPOLORATION, EXCAVATION, CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION: –

During 2016-2017, the Archaeological Section of the Directorate of Research has been explored and investigates at various places of Arunachal Pradesh and also carries out conservation / renovation and preservation works at different sites.

  1. Archaeological field investigation/ exploration of Sori-Langhi site of Donigaon Village under Seppa during August’2016.
  2. Chemical treatment of Bass relief of Lord Buddha during August’2016.
  3. The Archaeological Section carried out archaeological excavation and conservation works at the Western Gate and Eastern Gate Itafort (1st phase) during September-October’2016 and 2nd phase on February-March’2017.
  4. Carried out archaeological excavation, conservation/renovation and preservation of ramparts steps of both entry and exit gates of Thembang Dzong and also constructed underground drainage system within the Dzong during November-December’2016.
  5. Archaeological excavation at Malinithan Site during November’2017.
  6. Chemical conservation of antrala/mandapa of Malinithan ruins temple during November-December’2016.
  7. Carried out archaeological investigation, conservation and preservation of stone alters at Ziro during January’2017.
  8. The Archaeological Section supervised the construction of footpath at Piisapu Putu of Ziro during February-March’2017.
  9. The Archaeological Section carried out archaeological excavation and conservation works at the Western Gate and Eastern Gate Itafort (2nd phase) during March’2017.
  10. The Archaeological Section supervised the monastic painting at Jamchu Chorten (Morshing Gompa) during February-March’2017.
  11. The Archaeological Section developed the flower garden at Southern Gate Itafort during September’2016.
  12. The Archaeological Section carried out videography and photography of cultural landscape of Ziro during October’2016.
  1. Field tour to Ziro to assess the materials for dossier preparation of Tentative List World Heritage Site ‘Apatani Cultural Landscape’ during February’2017 by the Archaeological Section.

 

The Ita word derived from the Hita meaning bricks. Thus Itafort denotes the bricks fort. The Itafort lies East 093˚39” Longitude and North 27˚6’ Latitude within present Itanagar city. The name of state capital ‘Itanagar' is derived from this historic fort. There are no concrete evidences who built this fort. There are different legends recorded by the scholars regarding Itafort. However, most of views referred the Itafort with the Arimatta. If we reconciled the Assamar Buranji (of Gohain Barua) and Kamarupa Buranji with the Nyishi legends, the Itafort could be attributed to the Ramchandra and his son Arimatta of Mayapur. The Itafort could be built between the 14th-15th centuries A.D. The Itafort is an important medieval archaeological site of the state. A present monument ruin is the part of a big fort complex. It is a brick built fortified area of an irregular shape, partly man-made and partly natural. It is enclosed by natural ridges and brick ramparts, closing the western and eastern flanks. To the north and south are the ridges and steep cliff, affording adequate defence to the fort. Of the two ramparts, the western one runs for almost one and half kilometer long while the eastern one runs for 200 M. The western ramparts have two gates and an eastern rampart has one gate. In the north and south, irregular steep ridge of more than a kilometer length each, provide natural defence.

The topography of the area is sloping down from south to north. Itafort was constructed for defense purpose, having three magnificent gates, i.e., Eastern Gate, Southern Gate and Western Gate, along with the existing brick rampart which covers roughly 1 sq.km area in different places of the township in a zig-zag way. Three gates are varying sizes. It has been noticed that the builder of this magnificent fort did not give much attention towards the strengthening of the foundation of rampart. They had constructed the rampart just few cm below from the ground level which was one of the main reasons to damage and displacement of the fort. The builders constructed the rampart by erecting parallel bricks wall in both side with the help of mud mortar and at the middle gap of the rampart was filled with mud and bricks. In some portion the original foundation layers of the rampart are found intact which measures 2.08 to 2.06 meters in width and 1.40 heights. The original height of the rampart must be higher than the present level. No standing structure of any sort is noticed inside the fort area. However, scattered brickbats in various parts of Itafort area provide some ideas regarding ruins of some medieval settlements inside the fort. The fort is built of bricks as well as of stones. The bricks are of variety of sizes, including the ornamental bricks. The stones used are mainly sand stone. The bricks used are typically medieval Itafort is an important Archaeological State Protected Site of the Arunachal Pradesh and significant built heritage of the State. The Itafort came under both Giri-durga (Hill fort) and Vana-durga (Forest fort) because it is located at hilly area and it was forest/jungle at ancient time. According to Darrang District Gazetteer of 1905 (compiled by A.C. Allen), the site was covered by the jungle and even the scholars Y.A. Raikar describes that the area was covered with jungle during 1975.

The Itafort Southern gate is situated 480 meters above MSL. The Southern gate is constituted by 340 meters adjoining rampart which run towards Eastern and Western direction respectively. The total area of Southern Gate is measuring 15,105 sq.m (3.7 Acre). The Western Gate Itafort is located at the centre of capital complex. The National Highway and the sector road is bounded on the north side, the Legi Complex building in the south, the Police Station in the east and the National Highway in the west side. The Western Gate Itafort is constituted by 68.10 M rampart which run towards northern and southern direction respectively. The present area of western Gate Itafort is 2643 sq.m and situated at an altitude of 379.17 M above sea level. The geo-coordination lies East 093˚37’.623” Longitude and North 27˚05’.958” Latitude. The Eastern Gate of Itafort is located near the Raj Bhawan, Itanagar. The area of this Gate measures 2283 sq.m (0.564 Acre).
STONE PILED HOUSE, NAKSAPARBAT
STONE PILED HOUSE, NAKSAPARBAT
Naksaparbat is an important Archaeological State Protected Site of the Arunachal Pradesh. It is largest Archaeological excavated site of the State having vast and complete habitatonal site belonging to 14th -15th century A.D. The site is surrounded by the two hilly rivulets- Borgang and Namurah.

Naksaparbat site is located 26º57’ North Longitude and 93º 12’ East Latitude in the foothills of Namurah under Dising-Passo circle, East Kameng Districts. It is about 27kms north of Biswanath Charali, Assam. The upper settlement site (main site) is lying on a flat land surrounded by rampart and moat (?) covering the 3(three) hec. The lower settlement is situated on the southern parts of the site with 1 Sq. Km area.The house patterns of the Naksaparbet are two types – pile and normal. The ruins remains revealed that the houses were built by the stone as well as brick masonry along with perishable material. A ring well made out of sand stone block and brick is the Architectural excellence of the site. Rectangular pond is located at the south eastern corner of the site which measures 262 M in length and32 M in width. Hundreds of tourists (both local and mainland India) visit the site every year to enjoy archaeological and natural beauty.
Malinithan, a series of temples in ruins, situated at the foot of the Siang hills (erstwhile Abor hills) bordering Assam plains to its south. It is under the Likabali sub-division of West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The geo-coordinate of the site in latitude 94˚41′25′′ N and longitude 28˚38′34′′E. It is approximately 60 meters above MSL. The site is located at a distance of 1 km from the Likabali Township toward East. The Monuments occupies a strategic place on a hillock which delineated against the plain of Brahmaputra alluvium toward south. The river Brahmaputra is at an Ariel distance of about 5 km from the site. The surrounding areas, except north comprises of sandy silt riverine deposit. The hills start gradually from this hillock that comprises of Siwalik group of rock, which is the southernmost litho-tectonic unit of the Arunachal Himalaya. A series of tectonic lineament separated the hills from the plains.

The Malinithan revealed three temple bases, huge quantities of architectural members. The traces of two temple bases were visible in the main archaeological site and the third base was recovered to the north-western direction of the main temple complex. Between the two, one was traced out to the extreme eastern most flank of the main temple site. The base is damaged, only a portion of the last course of the foundation exists slanting to the southern direction virtually making it difficult to give any precise description of the plan. The temple base indicates that the foundation base was made by well-rammed boulder, pebbles, sand and levigated clay and over it laid the course of sandstone. The masons had adopted Dryasylar masonry technique to build the temple. Medium to loose grain dressed sandstone block, locally available were used in construction. The site has yielded a number of Brahmanical sculptures of Gods and Goddesses, representation of Rishis, Gandharvas, Apsaras, erotic scenes, Dvarpala, Dvara Palikas, animal and floral motifs, scene of customary life etc.
The Thembang Dzong is situated at the altitude of 2172M above sea level under Thembang Circle in West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh and lies N27˚20’45.2” & E092˚23’11.2”. The Dzong is about 55Kms distance North-east of Bomdila. The total area of the Thembang Dzong is 13,104 sq.m.

Presently the Dzong is a living village of Monpa tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. The Dzong has two entrance gates i.e. North-West (Main entrance gate) and South-East. The North-Western Gate measured 6mx5mx5.70m while the South-Eastern Gate measured 6.68M (length) and 4M (height). Both the gates was used for the movement of peoples, the entrance of the Eastern Gate was very stip high at that time. Both the Gates used to open at early morning and closed at evening hours after the Sunset. The people could not able to enter the fort nor could able to go out of the fort after the close of the Gates. There were peoples for the maintenance of both the Gates. Earlier the peoples of the Khonia, the Zirigoan, the Khuhitam and the Rahun areas done the reconstruction of the Dzong whenever it required while in reciprocal the people of Thembang gave away cows, yaks, goats etc. The Dzong almost badly damaged by Chinese Army during Indo-China War of 1962.

It is a host to several ancient and historical structural and has drawn the maximum attention the fortified Dzong constructed using traditional technology of the region. Due to the richness of Heritage structures found in the village local considered this village of Thembang itself as a monument. Thembang exhibits an important interchange of human values on developments in Dzong architecture within Arunachal Pradesh, a region of unique cultural integration in the world.

Thembang bears an exceptional testimony to the living cultural traditions of the Monpa tribe, which depicts influences of diverse cultures – the Bhutanese, the Tibetans and the indigenous North East Indian. This includes their social structure and practices, rites, rituals and their vernacular building knowledge systems. Thembang is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement depicting vernacular architecture high up in the mighty eastern Himalayas bordering two significant cultural influences that is known for the Monpa’s ingrained sense of responsibility to their environment and their efforts to maintain their natural and cultural heritage resources for posterity.
The Kamchoyam (Thung-Yee Gonpu) is located at the Bokhri Khumu area at a distance of 5 kms away from the Shergaon on between the Shergaon and Doimara Road. The site lie N27° 07’12.08” and E092°16’30.14” at an altitude of 2129 above MSL. It is located at the middle of hillock which is presently over growth of large tree within walls of this single ruined monastery of moderate size. The Dhaflowkho River is flowing at a distance of about 500 M (approx.) away from the Kamchoyam from eastern side towards south-west direction. The Bokhri Khumu area is covered by the pine trees and other deciduous forest. The Kamchoyam is covered with pine trees, rhododendron, bushes and grasses. The Kamchoyam Site is extended over an area of 10,068 sq.m (2.4 Acres (approx.).

The Kamchoyam word is derived from two local words Kamcho (means the mud) and Yam (means house). Therefore, the term Kamchoyam denotes the mud house. There is no written record so far the authorship. The local people have identified the ruins as the remnants of old Thung-Yee Gonpu. According to the prevailing local traditional sources, this site is said to be built before the famous Lhageyala Gompa. The Kamchoyam may be treated to 15th – 16th century A.D.

The complex of Kamchoyam Site is consisting of ruins of Kamchoyam, water reservoir, three numbers of Sangbhum, mane, ruins of stone house, stupa (?) and scattered mud structures so far discovered. The Kamchoyam is in ruins and built with huge sized mud block with block on block technique. The plinth is almost square. As per the excavation conducted within the Kamchoyam, it is found that the base is made of stone slabs. The construction have been achieved by very skillful use of locally available clay putting the same into layers in site compacting of the same and furnishing the surface by polishing giving a roof large size clay blocks, wooden straps as well as stone sleep have been inserted between different layers. The structure is roofless, but it collapses in some portion of the wall as well as variable cracking / decay process in mud blocks. The super structure of Kamchoyam might have provided with slitting wood and bamboo in traditional style. The thickness of wall is vary – 66cm, 58cm and 65cm. The mud block use at Kamchoyam is measuring 1.39 M in length, 65cm in breadth and 68cm in height. The ruins of wall remains at the Kamchoyam are of different length and height. The height of courses is varying in size. The northern wall measures 6.90 M in length and 3.90 M in height, the southern wall measures 7.10 M and 1.15 M in height, the western wall measures 6.88m in length and 2.92 M in height and while the eastern wall measures 6.90 M in length and 4.25 M in height.

The majestic ruins constructed with huge block of mud at Shergoan are a rare discovery and these are uncommon possession of the State of Arunachal Pradesh. Similar mud house is reported at Chitra Durga Fort in Karnataka. With this discovery a new chapter of archaeological investigation has open-up in the state. Such evidence is rare in north – east India.
In pre-independence era, the British ruler tried to invade the virgin land of present Arunachal Pradesh inhabited by the simple people of Indo-Mongoloid racial stock, but their freedom loving natures did not allow the Britishers to enter their territory. As a result a series of battle took place between them in some pockets especially in the Adi settlement. The Adis comprising a number of sub groups are the prime inhabitants of the erstwhile Siang district and the adjoining areas of Lohit and Lower Dibang Valley districts.

It may be mentioned that the colonial ruler attempted several times to occupy Pasighat area in the Adi-Padam-Minyong territory but the heroic Adi people fought with them very bravely. To fight against British they strategically erected some barricades and ramparts in some strategic areas. One of such stone barricades / ramparts constructed in the Dambuk area of Lower Dibang Valley district of Arunachal Pradesh is locally known as Bo-ngal Yapgo. The Bo-ngal Yapgo is a local Adi name which means “Foreigner rampart” as the barricade was specifically constructed to prevent the British invasion. The Yapgo is located about 35 km west from the district headquarter, Roing and only two km form Dambuk township. The Geo co-ordination of the site is 95o30’ East longitude and 34o30’ North latitude at an altitude of 437.27 M above MSL, which comes under the foot hills range of Mishimi Hills. The Pasighat-Roing road presently NH-52 is passing near the rampart through which one can get in touch with the monument from both the township respectively. The famous war Rampart “Bo-ngal Yapgo” was erected in that place by the brave Adis to avert their mother land from British incursion. The history of the monument is associated with the famous 3rd Adi-British war. The British authority had made attempts to in- dominate Adi-Padam of Bomjir, Dambok and Silluk through strong expedition as the Adis attacked British personnel and seized fishing boats on 23rd Dec 1883. The expedition party came from Sadiya and crossed the river Dibang on 15th January, 1894 and occupied Bomjir without any resistance. Having come to know about the attack the Adis, i.e. Padam, Millangs, Komkar and Pasi of nearby areas gathered at Dambuk and decided to fight with British to save their motherland. As a defensive measure they erected a barricade made of bamboo, wood, prickly substances and stone at the present Bo-ngal Yapgo area as per their traditional war tactics within a short span of 8 days from 16th to 23rd January, 1894. On 24th January the Adis confronted with the British troops at Yapgo point of Sadia-Dambuk road. Though Adis fought bravely, they could not resist the British troops.

Bongal Yapgo is a unique for its gigantic physical structure which was constructed amazingly by deployment of manual labour. The war rampart of Dambuk covers an area of 1,114 Sq.M and the total length of the existing stone barricade is 839 meters. Originally the ramparts were very long. We cannot find any instances of such defence mechanism in Arunachal Pradesh. The persons who sacrifice their life for the motherland and for the sovereignty of the land should be recognized as Martyrs. For that matter the war is surely the part of freedom movement and may be considered as sacred historical place, where Adis firmly stamped their patriotism alike real heros of our country. So, it may be considered as emancipation of Nationalistic feeling against the invaders.
Megalithic site of Borduria located at the old Borduria village near newly constructed helipad of Borduria. The site is well connected through motorable road from Khonsa-Deomali road and situated about 16 Km from Khonsa Township.

The Nocte’s of Borduria had practiced head hunting tradition before pre-independence periods and the hunted skulled were kept in their own village cemetery which known as Pang. Further they have erected an upright stone as a symbol of victory against each hunted skull in a specific place known as long pan. The long pan of Borduria is located on a small earthen mound where more than 100 upright stones labs are erected. The stone slabs are rectangle in shape and made up of schist rock. These memorials stones slabs comes under menhir variety of Megalith.. Most of the upright stones are fall down and soil erosion is also taken place and as a result the mound gradually falling.
The Gomsi (Rani) Archaeological Site is situated near Rani village about 15 km south west from Pasighat in the East Siang Disrtict of Arunachal Pradesh. The area is surrounded by river Kimi and NH 52 in the north, forest plantation and River Siang flow at far distance in the south. The eastern boundary is marked by river Kimi and in west Sika Tode, Sika Bamin and Rani Village. The site is on an alluvial plain of the Kimi River. The River Kimi and the Gomsi Nallah are the main drainage system of the area.

The site is fortified by earthen ramparts and ditches. The site comprised an area of about 11.5 acre, which could be divided into two parts viz. the central part comprise of 4.3 acre of land and the outer habitational area comprise of 7.2 acre of land. The central habitational area is consist of large brick made mound measuring (21 X 17 M), one ‘L’ shaped earthen mound which measure 23 X 23 X 14 M and a square pond of 28 X 28 M. one nallah of 3.5 M in width has been located around the central area, either end of which finally meets the pond from the opposite direction. The nallah might be used as moat and for collection of natural/rain water. The two rectangular brick structures are exposed nearby the main mound. The brick structure is consists of ten brick courses from the base level upto the present floor level, and the superstructure may be erected from the perishable material at that time. More than 24 different brick sizes were discovered and used at the site. The outer habitational area comprises of 20 numbers of small earthen mounds, which are surrounded around the central habitational area. The average measurement of the small earthen mound is 14 X 10 M approximately which are located more or less 30 M a part.

The preliminary typological analysis reveals the Gomsi (Rani) to early medieval period and probably pre-Ahom. It might be extension of the Brahmaputra Valley Culture of Upper Assam.
The Shergaon is located at a distance of about 42 kms South-West of the Rupa. It is a beautiful valley and situated at the altitude of 1954 above MSL.

The Megalithics of Shergaon are Menhirs and located at two different sites. The first site is located at the Lungstung area near the Chhoskorongkho River, below the Shendzong and about 2 km away from the Shergaon. The second site is traced at Lungjunkthung area, below the Highway, near Duflokho River and a distance of 2km. before reaching the Shergaon from the Rupa.

During the course of exploration in the Megalithic sites, 3(three) upright stones were found in the Lungstung area while 6 (six) upright stones were found in Lungjukthung. The upright stone of the Lungstung measures 1.40 M in height (outer surface), 42 cms in breadth, 16 cms in thickness. The upright stone of Lungjukthung measure 170 cms in hight (150 cms in outer surface and 20 cms in below surface), 20 cms in breadth, 8 cms in thickness.
The Lapang stands as a platform of public assembly. When village or clan members are required to discuss or negotiate about the common interest of the public activities, they gather on it for obtaining consensus on the issue.

As per the field surveyed, there are more than 100 numbers of Lapang in the Apatani Villages of Ziro. The Hong Village has 20 (twenty) numbers of lapang and highest numbers of lapang. The villagers informed that the Dukang Lapang of Hari Village is the oldest Lapang among the Apatanis of Ziro. However, the Taker Lapang of Hong Village is declared as a Heritage Lapang of Ziro because of using age old traditional materials and method in the construction of the particular Lapang.

As per prevailing sources, the Apatani community built the first lapang at the present Dukang Lapang area during the course of settlement at Ziro. After that the lapang are spread at different areas of Ziro.

The Heritage Taker Lapang of Ziro is situated at Hibu clan of Hong Village under the Lower Subansiri District of Arunachal Pradesh. The Takar Lapang was inaugurated and declared as Heritage Lapang of Ziro Valley on 14th September’2006 by Shri Chowna Mein, the present Deputy Chief Minister (than the Hon’ble Minister Research), Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh in presence of Shri Nani Ribia, ex-MLA (than local HMLA), Shri Kemo Lollen, the Deputy Commissioner Ziro, Dr. Tage Tada, former Director of Research (than the Director of Research), Shri Batem Pertin, the present Director of Research (than the Deputy Director of Research (Museum & Archives), district’s head of departments and PR Leaders of Ziro. The objective of declaration was to preserve the age old material culture of the Apatani community.

The Taker Lapang is purely on traditional characteristic feature of Lapang. It is only Lapang survived in the Ziro which continued to follow the age old traditional system of Apatani’s Lapang architect style till date without use of any modern building materials. Hence, the Takar Lapang of Ziro must be continued to preserve and conserve with traditional system. The Hong Village of Ziro has the highest numbers of Lapang having twenty numbers and the Taker Lapang is one of them.

As per the local traditional sources, the Taker Lapang of Hibu Clan is considered to be oldest Lapang of Hong Village. The name “Taker” is derived from the forefather “Taker”. The Ato Hiipa and Hang was the founder of the Hong Village. The Ato Hibu was the founder of Hibu clan and had three sons namely – Talyang, Taker and Kani. These three sons founded the Talyang Lapang, Taker Lapang and Kani Lapang of Hibu Clan. However, the Taker Lapang was built first among the all three lapangs. Considering the importance of Lapang in Socio-religious of Apatani, the Taker Lapang is conserved in traditional Apatani characteristic.
The Dadzeeling site is located almost centre of the Bhalukpong and Tippi touching National Highway (on left side of road way to Tippi from Bhalukpong). The burnt rice are scattered over the Dadzeeling on both side of road. This burnt rice believed to be of ancient period. There is also noticed the ruin stone structure in Dadzeeling site. The Dadzeeling is fall under the Khellong Forest Division.

As per the local sources, the burnt rice site of Dadzeeling was supposed to be granary house. It is believed that during the ancient time there was constant war with the neighbours. During the medieval period, there was power struggle between the local of Bhalukpong and the neighbours. This war results the defeat of the local by the neighbours. As a consequence, the local people completely burnt down their granary so that the invader army may be no upper hand to the granary. This power struggle was during 16th-17th century A.D. However, there is no concrete evidence so far.

The ruin stone structures spread over 30 M areas. The stones may be used as pillars of house. There noticed the human touch on stones and they chisel the stones such a way that the wooden beam may fitted on it. The wooden beam may be used to join the different pillars. However, we could not traces any evidence of wooden ruin so far. We also noticed that some of stones were plate types and this may be used for grinding purposes. But these are not finished touch. The ruin stone structure were scattered haphazardly and some overlap other. The stone may be brought from nearby nallah (stream) where such stones are available.
The Preetnagar name is derived from the ‘Preet’ who was daughter of ex-Indian Army( General Major). The Preetnagar site is located at N27 ◦ 14.783’ and E 096 ◦57.811’ at an altitude of 4782 ft above the SL. The site is located at a distance of 7kms (approx.) away from the mainland Vijaynagar at the middle of Hillock. The total area of the site is about 5sq.kms (approx). The Preetnagar site is surrounded by the Preetnagar village in the east, lake/pond on southern side while paddy field surrounded in the eastern, southern and western side. The Preetnagar village is one of the 13th village under Vijaynagar. During our exploration, two houses are only noticed in the Preetnagar village.
The World War-II was a milestone event in the World History. The Japanese army occupied the Burma (present Myanmar Country) after heavy bombardment of Myitkyina Airport in 1942-43 which resulting the retreat of the allied Forces to Assam. These events compelled to create the South East Asiatic command consisting of Allied forces – USA, Britain and China under the Supreme Command of Lord Luis Mountbatten with headquarter at Singapore. General Joseph Stillwell , the representative of President Roosevelt to General Chiang Kai-shek’s forces became the commander in Chief of the Chinese Vth Army and Deputy Supreme Commander of the above command. It was obvious that to sustain any military operations in this sector a new routes would have to be opened. As a result, the road linking Ledo in the North East part of Assam to Kunming, the capital of Chinese province of Yunnan passing through present Jairampur of Arunachal Pradesh was planned and envisioned by General Joseph Stillwell.

In this historic war, many Arunachal from the Padam, Minyong,Panying, Galo, Mishmis and the Tangsas took part as guides, sepoys, Porters and Labourers etc. Despite the eventful and dedicated service rendered by the Arunachal people, nowhere in the history was not recorded mention and due honour was accorded. Moreover, the Tangsas had suffered tremendously with frequent shifting of settlement, lose of property like cattle, pig, fowls etc. the remnant of the war like arms and ammunition, part of fighter planes, material used in road and bridges are found scattered here and there. In Jairampur town it present World War- II graveyard numbering around 1000 grave including few mass graves. The graves measures 1.28 M X 2.30 M and bricks used measuring 22 1/2 X 10 ½ X 7cm. three different bricks have been used. It was found that cement mortar were used for brick portion of grave with height of 0.50 M above the ground, while the top were covered with a concrete slab of three to four inches thick. These graves structure were very simple. In the light of above facts, the Directorate of Research, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh has proposed to set up the World War-II Memorial Museum at Jairampur and rewrite the historic event where many Arunachalee had made supreme sacrifice to protect the country.
Gorcham is a place near Zemithang in the Lumla sub-division of Tawang district, near the Indo-Tibetan border. Built in stone and mud plaster, the cenotaph has a base of 20 feet square and a height of about 100 feet. The hemispherical dome rests upon three terraced plinths. Four miniature Stupas are constructed on the four corners of the lowermost terrace of the plinth. The base is square with each side about 175 feet in length with a niche running all along its whole length and as many as 120 Manes (prayer wheels) are set in frames of wood in the niche of each side of the base. The dome is surmounted by a square capital with a spire of thirteen step-like segments topped by an umbrella.

This is said to have been modeled after the Bodhnath Stupa of Nepal. It is said to have contained three sets of copper images of Buddha of three different sizes, each set consisting of 108 models, sets of Kanjur, each containing 108 volumes and three sets of copper model of a Chorten. The local Monpas call it as Beyu Chorten. In fact the Gorcham Chorten reflects the engineering skill of the Monpas at its best.
The Taklung Dzong is located near Sanglem Village of Kalaktang circle under West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh. It is about 20kms distance from the Shergaong. The Taklung Dzong is said to be constructed by Lama Tanpei Dronme, who along with his brother constructed various Gelugpa monuments in 15th – 16th century in Mon area. With the help of the local people, the revered Lamas constructed the two storeyed structures. He is said to have; painted the guardian deity Lhamoja Droima, as the patron deity of the gompa and preserved this in a copper tube, which was forbidden to be seen by all.

It is said that originally the monastery had more than four rooms both on the ground and first floor. The main Gompa was on the first floor and the rooms on the ground floor had bedroom for the Lama and the Dzongpens. A portion of the demolished structure still can be seen above the present gompa. The artifact of the collapsed Gompa are now stored in a hut. It consists of brass image of Lopon Rimpoche, Guru Padmasambhav and Chana Dorjee. The Taklung Dzong is the State Protected Monument.